If you are a student and make use of material on this page in an assignment, you are obliged to reference the source in line with the citation information. Since the period in which the encyclical Rerum Novarum denounced in a forceful and imperative manner the scandal of the condition of the workers in the nascent industrial society, historical evolution has led to an awareness of other dimensions and other applications of social justice. Karl Marx famously said that historical events occur twice, first as tragedy and then as farce. This is the core of all later Catholic Social Teaching. This is an historical 'setting' for the encyclical Rerum Novarum by Pope Leo XIII, published in 1891 and considered the watershed of moder CST. ... Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32 - Duration: 11:05. Rerum Novarum is considered the first social encyclical of the modern period. Historically it can be argued that the encyclical came too late in the period, fifty years after the 1848 year of revolutionary fever in mainland Europe, yet too early for the full effects of socialism and Marxism in Russia, to … What might seem, upon a first reading, a rather aimless stitching together of innumerable ancient myths is actually a very careful selection which is tied together by a single commonality: the metamorphoses themselves, one thing being changed into another. Historical Context of Rerum Novarum 46 Rerum Novarum: Leo’s Opus on Labor Relations 50 Graves De Communi Re: Clarifying the Christian Labor Movement 52 CHAPTER IV. Most of these m, A few weeks back, I took part in the wonderful synergy created by three concurrent events, the Catholic Writers Conference , the Catholic New Media Conference , and the annual trade expo of the Catholic Marketing Network . Twentieth-century Eastern Europe was a vivid example of what the encyclical Rerum Novarum prophesied. Of primary concern is the need for some amelioration of "the misery and wretchedness pressing so unjustly on the majority of At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, thanks to the “industrial revolution” factories prospered, but in this prosperity capitalism had become abusive. III: CST addresses international development, 5.2.10 Questions for discussion half way through the unit, 5.3.1 PP Part I, âTowards an Integral Human Developmentâ, 5.3.3 PP I.2 Integral development (##12-21 and #42), 5.3.4 Henri de Lubac and Louis-Joseph Lebret, 5.3.5 PP I.3 a. Integral development vs ‘unchecked liberalism’ (##22-28), 5.3.6 PP I.3 b. According to Rerum Novarum, ... History provides endless examples of the failure of big government. Some obscure literary allusion that can be grasped by only the most erudite? 6.4.7 Novak on CST up to Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 6.4.9 Conclusion: neoconservatism, CST and international development, As you are now well aware, the topic of labour was central in, Pope John Paul II devoted a whole encyclical to âhuman workâ, namely. 2.4.6 How is CST related to liberalism, conservatism and socialism? In the process, my various blogs, of which this one is the chief, have fallen fallow, a situation that has been as necessary as it has been regrettable (for me, at least). 4.2.2 Rerum Novarum: introduction. In 1837 he was ordained a priest and entered the diplomatic service of the Papal States. A. Ivereigh, âManning of the Barricadesâ,Â The Tablet, 17 Feb. 2007.Â The quotations come from part of this article reproduced in Ivereigh,Â Faithful Citizens: A Practical Guide to Catholic Social Teaching and Community OrganisingÂ (DLT, 2010), 94. Text Focus Point: Pages 217-218 Discussion Questions: Why is the historical milieu of Rerum Novarum important to understanding Pope Leo XIIIâs concerns? The Church, in fact, travels forward with humanity and shares … Reading, like so much of life, is all about seeing what is to be seen — not only what is visible in a cursory glance, but also patterns that lie beneath the surface to give meaning to the words, not to mention all sorts of little hints and clues “hidden in plain sight,” which provide an extra level of enjoyment and meaning to the attentive reader. It was an open letter, passed to all Catholic patriarchs, primates, archbishops and bishops, that addressed the condition of the … "Rerum novarum": Écriture, contenu et réception d'une encyclique (review) "Rerum novarum": Écriture, contenu et réception d'une encyclique (review) 1999-10-05 00:00:00 BOOK REVIEWS437 443-457). RERUM NOVARUM. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. 2.2.8 How should government be constituted? Modern novels don’t always have a “hero” – in fact, one of the hallmarks of the novel, the thing that d, Flannery and I both enjoyed visiting the Amana Colonies while we were graduate students at the University of Iowa. 5.2.6 The âfree economyâ and its âjuridical frameworkâ, 5.2.7 Questions for discussion half way through unit, 5.3 CSTâS CONSTRUCTIVE VISION OF BUSINESS AND THE ECONOMY, 5.3.3 âStructures of sinâ in business life, 5.3.4 Before and after the financial crisis, 5.4 CST ON ECONOMIC LIFE: ASSESSMENT AND ACTION, 5.4.2 Action: making the âuniversal destinationâ particular. It is an open letter, passed to all Catholic patriarchs, primates, archbishops and bishops, that addressed the condition of the working classes. Firstly we need to analyse the background to the period leading up to Rerum Novarumâs publication. (If you haven't read the first installment, find it here. ) A few weeks ago, I promised a review of Cyril Jones-Kellett's Ad Limina: a novella of Catholics in space , and I've written and posted it over on my science fiction blog. 4.2.1 Revisiting the historical context of Rerum Novarum. Clarifying the question, 2.2.9 How should government be constituted? ââââââââââââââââââââ, Frederic Ozanam, founder of the St Vincent de Paul Society, Go toÂ 4.2.2Â Rerum NovarumÂ â introduction. Like the Church and the State, the family is not an optional, but a necessary social institution. Full text â which focuses on the Cold War ideological conflict between capitalism and Communism, and indeed is now not directly relevant 25 years after the revolutions of 1989-91 which brought down the Communist regimes in central and eastern Europe. With the work of Peter C. Yorke, an Irish priest in San Francisco, the City by the Bay became a testing ground for the rights of labor versus capital in … There are some parallels in our lives (for instance, we both grew up in the South and attended the University of Iowa as graduate students -- where we even worshiped in the same parish, Saint Mary's.) 2.2.7 Why should people accept governmentâs claim to authority? Pope Leo XIII made this explicit in Rerum Novarum. Rerum novarum, which was directed against socialism and the working-class movement, reflected the … 8.3.3 Justice for women: the âbiggest lacunaâ in CST? We are told of the âutter poverty of the massesâ (1) at a time THE INTELLECTUAL CONTEXT OF RERUM NOVARUM Though the Papal States were returned in 1815 and papal religion once again tolerated throughout Europe, the Roman communion was never restored to its commanding position as the established church of the The problem was that these. Following Leo's insights, a rereading of American labor cases within the darker context of actual and threatened violence will reposition labor in relation to its rightful historical background. Workers found themselves in worse and worse situations, receiving lower wages and working longer hours. It was originally written to Catholic bishops. American historians often position Rerum Novarum, an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891, within the context of American labor struggles. This is an historical 'setting' for the encyclical Rerum Novarum by Pope Leo XIII, published in 1891 and considered the watershed of moder CST. Workers found themselves in worse and worse situations, receiving lower wages and working longer hours. In Rerum novarum, Leo XIII strongly affirmed the natural character of the right to private property, using various arguments against the socialism of his time. Leo XIII gave the Church a paradigm and a corpus to analyze, judge, and indicate directions for social realities (#5). These two documents mean that the way you will encounter CST in this unit is very different from in Unit 3. Rerum Novarum (literally, “of new things”), an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, thanks to the. Social justice: equity in trade (##56-65), 5.3.10 PP II.3 Universal charity: toward a more human world (##66-75), 5.3.11 PP Conclusion: development and peace (##76-87), 5.4.1 Critical assessments of Populorum Progressio, 6.1.1 A new trajectory in CST: Populorum Progressio to Caritas in Veritate, 6.1.3 Poverty in the Catholic Churchâs teaching, 6.2 A RADICAL CHALLENGE: LIBERATION THEOLOGY, 6.2.2 Base ecclesial communities and Freire on âconscientizationâ, 6.2.4 Liberation theologyâs global vision, 6.2.5 Liberation theology and Marxism: revolution and socialism, 6.2.6 Liberation theology and Marxism: class analysis, 6.2.7 The Vaticanâs response to liberation theology, 6.2.8 Two âInstructionsâ on liberation theology, 6.3.3 SRS, chapter IV: âAuthentic human developmentâ, 6.3.4 âStructures of sinâ: background, 6.3.5 SRS, chapter V on âstructures of sinâ, 6.3.7 Three ways in which John Paul II develops CST on solidarity, 6.3.8 SRS chapter VI on the preferential option for the poor, 6.3.9 CST on international development after liberation theology, 6.4 A NEOCONSERVATIVE CHALLENGE: âDEMOCRATIC CAPITALISMâ, 6.4.1 Introduction: Catholic defenders of capitalism, 6.4.3 Novak on liberation theology and international development, 6.4.5 Centesimus Annus: affirming enterprise. After comparatively analizing Rerum Novarum and Octogesima Adveniens, this paper examines how the historical context of the documents has influenced the Catholic Church's stance on the role of women in public life. The Rerum Novarum was a papal encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII in 1891. Download Rerum Novarum Ebook, Epub, Textbook, quickly and easily or read online Rerum Novarum full books anytime and anywhere. Because Ryan's sanitized version of Rerum Novarum is so often the only Rerum Novarum that American history scholars know, scholars and students alike often assume that Leo XIILs encyclical was the Vatican's blessing upon the labor movement. ... "In this context, some people continue to defend … 4.2.4 Monarchy, democracy and the Catholic Church, 4.2.5 Three kinds of argument for democracy, 4.3.1 Maritain on Christianity and democracy, 4.3.2 Democracy in CST texts (i): Pius XII, 4.3.3 Democracy in CST texts (ii): John XXIII, Pacem in Terris, 4.3.4 Democracy in CST texts (iii): Vatican II, Gaudium et Spes, 4.3.5 Democracy in CST texts (iv): John Paul II, Centesimus Annus, 4.3.6 Democracy in CST texts (v): John Paul II, Evangelium Vitae, 4.3.8 Democracy in CST texts (vi): Benedict XVI, 4.3.9 Review of CST on participation and democracy, 4.4.1 How CST does and does not argue for democracy, 4.4.2 Political consent in Catholic thought: the âtransmission theoryâ, 4.4.2 Yves Simon on ‘Authority in Democracy’. â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. As you are now well aware, the topic of labour was central in Rerum Novarum in 1891. -expands Rerum Novarum's look at work, in light of current conditions-introduces the principle of subsidiarity ... St. John XXIII-the historical context: post-war recovery and the beginnings of decolonization-denounces the disparity between rich and impoverished nations: instructs wealthier and more advanced countries to … Characteristics of Rerum novarum Rerum novarum attempted to respond to the conflict between capital and labor (#5). Historical Catholic and Dominican Documents by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@Providence. The Church: An Analysis of The Rerum Novarum Publication 1898 Words | 8 Pages. history of Europe: Political patterns Under a new pope, Leo XIII , the Roman Catholic church moved more formally to accommodate to modern politics. Laracy has made a study of the healing effects of beauty on thos, Second installment on the Great Flood in Ovid's Metamorphoses Ovid artfully wove telling details into his poem. Venerable Brothers, ... the direct consequences of that message in the life of society and situates daily work and struggles for justice in the context of bearing witness to Christ the Saviour. 2.4.5 âConservatismâ and âsocialismâ. In this encyclical, Cantú explained, “the family is treated as one of three irreplaceable institutions that are essential for human happiness. After comparatively analizing Rerum Novarum and Octogesima Adveniens, this paper examines how the historical context of the documents has influenced the Catholic Church's stance on the role of women in public life. Rerum Novarum and Economic Thought A. M. C. Waterman St Johnâs College, Winnipeg Upon reading Rerum Novarum (RN) for the first time, with no prior commitment to the teaching authority of its author, an economist of the present day may be struck by a nagging sense of unreality. At the same time, the … Pope John XXIII writes Mater et Magistra in 1961 on the 70th anniversary of Rerum Novarum. Much of the rest of the unit will be focused on those two encyclicals.Â The module could not claim to enable serious study of CST on working life, one of its central topics, if it did not require you to engage with Rerum Novarum and Laborem Exercens. Today I’d like to consider the value of beauty, an abstract value, but one that we often associate with poetry, as well as music and the fine arts. Since then, I've come to know her better and I'm just sure that in Heaven we will be best buddies. I frequently walk along the shore of the lake shor, In case the title of this post is too cryptic for you, let me explain: the “it” I think I've got is the way forward for this blog. Therefore, the architects of the new society would need to make sure that everyone was on the same page: that is, In my next post I’ll begin summarizing and commenting on, A recent comment on an old post about Flannery O'Connor raises some questions that I thought I would respond to in a separate post, rather than depositing them in the obscurity of the comm box. Rerum Novarum is considered the first social encyclical of the modern period. Rather the letter continued themes found in Gaudium et spes and Mater et magistra and responded to the historical context in which it was written. When Pope Leo XIII issued his influential Rerum Novarum in 1891, the defenders of unfettered and unburdened capitalism denounced the Holy Father using much of the same language. At any rate, since I first read any of her work, way back in my college days, I've thought of Flannery O'Connor as a friend I never got a chance to meet. Historical Background. He still held the view that women are primarily destined to do domestic works and not to involve themselves in … One thing it does is put G.K. Chesterton’s viewpoints on the same subject, and on socialism and capitalism, in a much better context. 6.4.6 Centesimus Annus: envisioning a non-capitalist market economy? Since the documentation collected has arisen from the various offices which produced it, the conceptual framework of the … 4: âPrivate Property and the Universal Destination of Material Goodsâ, 8.2.6 Chap. In an article in The Tablet on Manning, Austen Ivereigh wrote: Manningâ¦ is best remembered as a friend of the workers, for his defence of the rights of labour in the age before legal trade unions.Â To put profit before human dignity, Manning believed, was to invert the moral order. Film Focus Point: This program provides very good historical background on Pope Leo XIIIâs encyclical Rerum Novarum and provides a rather thorough explanation of the significance of this document. Rerum Novarum, encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891 and considered by many conservative Roman Catholics to be extremely progressive. Leo XIII, in his encyclical Rerum Novarum, despite his denouncement of inhuman situations of the working class under capitalistic In an open letter to all Catholics, Pope Leo XIII addressed the conditions of the working classes, the relationships between labor and capital, as well as government and its citizens. Leo XIII, in his encyclical Rerum Novarum, despite his denouncement of inhuman situations of the working … The cultural revolution that was occurring in the secular world at the time, which espoused liberal ideals, greater racial tolerance and included the feminist movement further complicated the strategic intent of the council (Fiske, 1985). But I’ve finally got the novel in good enough shape that I can dare to let the intellectual side of my brain steal a little time from the creative side. Nonetheless, he does not use it to become a sort of paranormal hero, going around seeking out evil to foil it before it happens. Second World War: Europe had never before seen such carnage and was still reeling from the horrific events of the âthe final solutionâ that had occurred under Nazi Germany. 4.4.3 Democracy in the Catholic Church’s structures? Momentous historical events shape its content. 6.4 HOW CAN FAMILIES ACT FOR THE COMMON GOOD? The Rerum Novarum was a papal encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII in 1891.It was originally written to Catholic bishops. 4.2.2 Rerum Novarum: introduction. N.B. He knows, instinctively, that he needs to balance his peculiar gift with a perfe, Third installment on the Great Flood in Ovid's Metamorphoses I left the discussion of Ovid’s Metamorphoses by saying (as I often do) that, in literature, context is everything. 8.4 CONCLUSION: âLIVING LIFE TO THE FULLâ, 1.2.3 The Churchâs Social Teaching: old and new, 1.2.4 Sources of CST: the Bible, reason, tradition and experience, 1.2.5 âA just and free societyâ: the parts of CST covered in this module, 1.2.6 Questions for discussion half way through the unit, 1.3.6 The preferential option for the poor, 1.3.8 The priority of labour over capital, 1.3.10 CSTâs vision: neither âcollectivistâ nor âindividualistâ, 1.3.11 Conclusion: solidarity and its absence, 1.4.2 Three normative questions about government, 2.2 THE âJUST GOVERNMENT STRANDâ IN THE BIBLE, 2.2.1 Introducing readings from Scripture, 2.2.4 Just government: (2) The role of Israel’s king, 2.2.6 Just government: (4) God above Caesar. It enunciated the late 19th-century Roman Catholic position on social justice , especially in relation to the problems created by the Industrial Revolution , and it emphasized the churchâs right to make pronouncements on social issues as they related to moral â¦ After comparatively analizing Rerum Novarum and Octogesima Adveniens, this paper examines how the historical context of the documents has influenced the Catholic Church's stance on the role of women in public life. 65 This right, which is fundamental for the autonomy and development of the person, has always been defended by the Church up to our own day. 7.3.6 Taking action against human rights abuses, 8.1 CSTâS EMERGENCE IN MODERN WESTERN HISTORY, 8.1.1 Reviewing the moduleâs Learning Outcomes, 8.1.3 The Compendiumâs summary of CSTâs history, 8.1.4 Different kinds of historical explanation, 8.2.1 âIntroductionâ and Chap. Urgent challenges in realizing development (##29-41), 5.3.7 PP Part II, âTowards the Solidary Development of Humanityâ, 5.3.8 PP II.1. I met lots of wonderful people, and got plenty of ideas – too many, really, and it has taken me a couple of weeks to recover! For more information, please firstname.lastname@example.org. Copyright Â© Newman University. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). 1. In an open letter to all Catholics, Pope Leo XIII addressed the conditions of the working classes, the relationships between labor and capital, as well as government and its citizens. ... walking together with man through history. People love to dream about the good old days, after all. So what will follow is, first, a series of screens on RN, each of which includes an optional reading from this encyclical. To mark the eightieth anniversary of Rerum novarum, Paul VI did not write an encyclical letter, but rather an apostolic letter to Maurice Cardinal Roy, who was president of the Pontifical Commission Justitia et Pax. For the past couple of years, I’m been concentrating on writing a novel, my first — in fact, I’m still working on it. In fact, no. For the nation, as it were, of the rich, is guarded by its own defenses and is in less need of governmental protection, whereas the suffering multitude, without the … Workers found themselves in worse and â¦ One of the results of this great experience is that I decided. After his early education in Viterbo and Rome, he completed his studies at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici (Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics) in Rome. During that period new technological developments, such as factories where cloth could be woven on huge mechanized looms, began to radically alter the way most people in Europe and North America lived. 3.3.3 Scriptural texts relating to ecological responsibility, 3.3.4 âIn the image of Godâ: introduction, 3.3.5 âIn the image of Godâ: (a) dominion in the good creation, 3.3.6 âIn the image of Godâ: (b) humans as âpersons in relationâ, 3.3.8 Questions for discussion half way through unit, 3.4 STATEMENTS IN CST ON ECOLOGICAL RESPONSIBILITY, 3.4.3 The Catholic Bishopsâ Conference of England and Wales, 3.5.1 Critical overview of CST on ecology: Dorr, 3.5.2 Critical overview of CST on ecology: Deane-Drummond, 3.5.3 âLiving life to the fullâ with all creation, 4.1.1 Introduction: following the âpastoral spiralâ in this unit, 4.1.2 Your work â past, present, future, 4.1.5 What this unit is about and not about, 4.2.1 Revisiting the historical context of Rerum Novarum, 4.2.3 RN, part 1: A natural right to private property (##4-15), 4.2.4 RN, part 2: The role of the Church in teaching and charity (##16-31), 4.2.5 RN, part 2: The role of the Church, continued (##16-31), 4.2.6 RN part 3: The role of government in ensuring just working conditions (##32-47), 4.2.7 RN, part 4: Workers have a right to form associations/unions (##48-61), 4.3.1 From Rerum Novarum to Laborem Exercens, 4.3.2 Laborem Exercens: preface and introduction (##1-3), 4.3.3 Work as for the human person (LE ##4-7), 4.3.5 Work, dignity and society (LE ##9-10), 4.3.6 The priority of labour over capital (LE ##11-12), 4.3.7 Questions for discussion half way through unit, 4.3.8 The critique of âeconomismâ and âmaterialismâ (LE ##13-15), 4.3.9 âRights of Workersâ (LE ##16-23), 4.3.10 âElements for a Spirituality of Workâ (LE ##24-27), 4.4.1 Summary and review of Laborem Exercens, 4.4.2 General assessment of CST on working life, 4.4.3 Christian action for workersâ rights, 5.1 ECONOMIC LIFE: EXPERIENCE AND CONTEXT, 5.1.2 Your experience of private business, 5.1.3 Historical context: revision of Unit 2 historical outline, 5.1.4 Historical context: from Cold War to 2008 financial crisis, 5.1.5 Historical context: an argument about knowledge in markets, 5.1.6 McCarthy on âModern Economyâ, and a lacuna: âsocial capitalismâ, 5.2 ELEMENTS OF CST ON BUSINESS AND THE ECONOMY, 5.2.1 The ‘universal destination of material goodsâ, 5.2.3 Applying moral principles in economic life, 5.2.4 âPrivate Initiative and Business Initiativeâ. 3.1.3 Government depends on possible resort to coercion, 3.1.5 Retributive justice and the rule of law, 3.1.6 Two temptations for Christians to avoid, 3.2.1 Finding CSTâs view of the role of government, 3.2.3 The âpluralistâ dimension of subsidiarity, 3.2.4 Reasons for the principle of subsidiarity, 3.2.6 Questions for discussion half way through the unit, 3.3 THE POSITIVE, ‘SUBSIDIARY’ ROLE OF GOVERNMENT, 3.3.3 Directing society to the common good, 3.3.4 Governmentâs responsibility for distributive justice: interim summary, 3.3.6 John Courtney Murray: governmentâs role as âpublic orderâ, 3.4 DEVELOPING OUR STUDY OF LIBERALISM, CONSERVATISM AND SOCIALISM, 3.4.2 Liberalism, conservatism and socialism: take two, 4.1 INTRODUCTION: PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, 4.1.2 Political participation â made possible by democracy. So now that we've looked at Ovid's general poetic purpose in writing Metamorphoses , it’s time to take a close look at the episode in which he describes a great flood that destroyed all living things in the ancient world, to see if we can discern the details that can tell us the meaning of this episode within the poem as a whole. His famous lecture on the Dignity and Rights of Labour, givenâ¦ in 1877, began boldly: âI claim for labour all the rights of propertyâ.Â Among them was the right to organize â through unions to improve conditionsâ¦, [I]n the Great Dock Strike of 1889â¦ [t]he (mostly Irish) strikers were among the most exploited and defenceless of the workers; and it was Manningâs powerful address to the employers that secured them their hike in pay and conditions.1. Â I suggest you focus especially on the entry on Manning. Historical context. Rerum novarum â A Quick Overview - Duration: 1:56. After this, there will be a similar series of screens on the content of LE, each of which includes a required reading from this encyclical. Rerum Novarum was promulgated in 1891 by Pope Leo XIII, a little more than a century after the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. “Starting with Rerum Novarum, the Church has never stopped considering the problems of workers within the context of a social question which has progressively taken on worldwide dimensions.” John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 2: AAS 73 (1981), 580-583. A Brief History of the Events Leading Up to Rerum Novarum Catholic Social Teaching does not develop in a vacuum, but in the context of world history. Part of the Studies in Modern History book series (SMH) Abstract The subject of this article is the intellectual isolation of Roman Catholic â specifically papal â social doctrine, an isolation not only symbolized, but in some ways ratified and made permanent, by Rerum Novarum . I was able to attend all of the talks of the writers’ conference, as well as the third day of the New Media conference, which focused on blogging, and also had several opportunities to stroll through the marketing trade show, meet the vendors (who had an astonishing variety of products), and pick up a huge assortment of freebies (mostly books – how could I pass up free books?!?). The Encyclical Rerum novarum itself is a significant sign of this. abusive. Pope (1878-1903 : Leo XIII). It commemorates the one hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. But the real importance, historically, of Rerum Novarum – “Of New Things” was the new willingness of the Pope to engage with the rapid changes happening in contemporary society, drawing on the riches of Catholic Tradition to identify the moral issues involved. The constancy of change The title hints at the poem’s meaning. 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