//re upper Euphrates or one of its tributaries. The two married women in the Gilgamesh Epic-Utnapishtim's wife and Scorpion-man's wife-are unnamed, anonymous creatures.8 Their position is like that of Mesopotamian wives generally: relational, given definition as wife or daughter. But, reconciled or not, Enkidu is doomed and dies. May the [nurse] weep for you, Who treated your rashes(?) [He will give you Shamhat the harlot], take her with you, [Let her prevail over him], instead of a mighty man. Utanapishtim is not too keen. I am heartsick for Enkidu! Her speech is noteworthy for its jarring colloquialisms. Let my eyes see the sun and let me sate myself with daylight! He had him lie down in a circle of [flour], And spreading out like a net, Enkidu lay down in the doorway. 6 -. He let out a single bloodcurdling cry, The guardian of the forest shrieked aloud, [...I Humbaba was roaring like thunder. The second half of each line proclaims his progress from becoming a human being to becoming a leader among men. Tablet I1 [Enkidu suggests that they placate the god Enlil, whom their exploits haw presumably angered, by taking cedar logs to his temple.] Lines often divide into two, three, or more parts with roughly the same number of words in each part, usually two to four, though there are many variations on this pattern. (E.) I saw them. Eventually a trapper discovers that Enkidu has been destroying his traps. and his mother was the goddess Ninsun. [The mother goddess blames Enlil for the flood, saying her glittering necklace of fly-shaped beads, which may stand for the rainbow, will memorialize the human race drowned in the flood.] Without this addition-which seems more the work of a copyist than an editor-the epic shows a frame: it begins and ends with the same hymn in praise of the walls of Uruk. He built that tomb of stone, He built its walls of stone, He set its doors in frames of stone, The bolt and sill were diorite, The pivot stones were diorite, The roof beams were cast in gold. I was grasping a wild bull of the steppe! Go up on the wall of Uruk, walk around, examine the terrace, look closely at the brickwork: Is not the base of its brickwork of baked brick? Besides, whosoever enters his forest is struck down by disease. May your heart not sorrow that human life must end, May your spirit not be crushed, may your heart not be aggrieved. The messenger of death did not seize him, the demon of disease did not seize him, the netherworld seized him. In the first millennium B.c.E., Gilgamesh was worshipped as a netherworld deity and was invoked in funerary rites. NONLITERARY ORAL TRADITION IAlX4RY TRADITION I lost oral tales of Gilgamesh ca B.C. My friend whom I loved is turned into clay, Enkidu, my friend whom I loved, is turned into clay! [Gilgamesh's proclamation.] 75 [May your swain prefer] beauties, [May he pinch you] like potter's clay. Gilgamesh made ready to speak, Saying to the princess Ishtar: 1. An initially refuses to hand over the bull, describing the dangerous consequences of doing so, but gives in when Inanna lets loose a world-shaking scream. Individual Learning Packet. Could I but get at you I would make you like unto it." The days of death they did not define. [The bull's immense horns are mawels of craftsmanship. I have peered over the city wall, I have seen the corpses floating in the river's water. Do not put on clean clothes, They would surely see it as the sign of a stranger. Thl~reasures of Darkness {New Haven: Yale University, 1976), p Tzvi Abusch, History of Religions 26 [1986], pp It is a comprehensive and in-depth analysis, the focus of which is very different from mine. There was Dumuzi, or Tammuz, the love of her youth, for whom she instituted laments year after year. YOU CAME FROM, PRAYER SERVICE FOR THE YEAR OF MERCY DECEMBER 8, 2015 NOVEMBER 20, 2016 This brief prayer service may be used in any number of contexts (parish meetings, small groups, family prayer, etc. In the Gilgamesh Epic, women speaking proverbially are consoling. 30 When he heard out this speech, swiftly, quickly his tears flowed down, When Gilgamesh heard out Enkidu's speech, swiftly, quickly, his tears flowed down. Enkidu was their watchman, a wakeful man, He was [... ] tall. 'I'he onslaught of his weapons had no equal. Fill big new barges(?) At its third snort, a pit opened up, Ihkidu fell into it, up to his middle. They approached Mount Lebanon. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 24:27-31. 120 At its second snort, a pit opened up, 'I'wo hundred young men of Uruk fell into it. (G.) Did you see him who was cut off in his prime? Thev a~~roached Mount Lebanon. And Ur-Shanabi replied to Gilgamesll 2 Angle brackets enclose material erroneously omitted by the scribe. They put their equipment, armor, and war clubs in storage, He celebrated in his palace. The birth goddess Nintu has never borne [a man whom the demon Fate has not] seized. Lord Gilgamesh stood at its front, Enkidu went around towards its rear. Your mother was the best at bearing a son, Your wet nurse was the best at nursing a son. At twenty double leagues they took a bite to eat, At thirty double leagues they made their camp, Fifty double leagues they went in a single day, A journey of a month and a half in three days. Gilgamesh said to him, to the faraway Utanapishtim: "What can I do, Utanapishtim, where will I go? In heaven they shine, stars... on high, On earth they know the road to Aratta, Like merchants they know the trade routes, Like pigeons they know the mountain clefts. Huwawa win appointed guardian of the cedar forest by Enlil, and in killing 11i111 Gilgamesh and Enkidu have incurred Enlil's anger. Why am I awake? in those far-off vears. The convened assembly of his city's elders Replied to Gilgamesh: There are wells to be finished, many wells of the land to be finished, Many shallow wells of the land to be finished, Many deep wells with rope-hoists to be finished, Let us submit to the house of Kish, let us not fight. 255 Besides, whosoever enters his forest is struck down by disease. Figure 4 also reproduced with the permission of William W. Hallo, Curator of the Yale Babylonian Collection. revised 07.07.12 English 1302: Composition II D. Glen Smith, instructor, Level 2 Lesson 7. Enkidu, aghast, strides off to Uruk. The Old Babylonian Enkidu is utterly different from the Sumerian Enkidu. Hallo and Younger (1997), I thank E. J. Brill, NV, Leiden. There may have been the topos of wise woman in Mesopotamia, as Claudia V. Camp, Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981), pp. Line 11 contains a wordplay on the Babylonian words for "brides" and "interments," portending Enkidu's fate.] She takes him to an encampment ofshepherds, where he learns how to eat, drink, dress, and groom himself to human standards. But, as Babcock points out in her introduction (see above, n. 2) and as other essays in her book demonstrate, viewing the world as "upside down" and as topsy turvey seems to have universal comic appeal. I opt for the translation "tavernkeeper" rather than "barmaid," for it seems more in keeping with the economic status of the sabitu in the Old Babylonian period. Much as ~nkidu may deplore the loss of his old hardihood, this wily of regaining it seems rather more than he bargained for. Conditions were dismal, although there were gradations of misery. [Enkidu's final illness is conveyed by monotonous repetition of the days of its course. o i By the life of the mother who bore me, the goddess Ninsun, and my father, the divine pure Lugalbanda, 115 Until I find out whether he is man or god, I will not turn my foot from the mountain land, towards the city. (E.) He twitches like an ox as vermin bite him Because he never untied his wife's clothes, he is doomed to tie knots forever ZZII (G.) Did you see him who did not heed the words of his mother and father? As a true hero, Gilgamesh cannot bear to owe anything to the largess of another, but must win what he has through his own prowess in battle, must prove himself by defeating Agga. None of these suggestions is supported by Mesopotamian evidence. As they admire him, Gilgamesh approaches with his nuptial procession, going to the house of his father-in-law for his wedding, but as he nears the door Enkidu bars the way and does not let him in to his bride. 65 While Gilgamesh journeys to the forest of cedars, May the days be long, may the nights be short, May his loins be girded, his arms [strong]! Enkidu's curse and blessing of the prostitute (VII, 67-95, ) contain numerous wordplays, some with sexual overtones: "best clothes" suggests "lap" (a euphemism for genitalia). But I have seen him and he scared me witless. View Foster, B. et al. 125 lcilgamesh tells his mother and sister to look after(?) lliuwawa prays to the god Utu.] (G.) How does he fare? Then Gilgamesh was brought before them (the gods), They relayed the god Enlil's counsel to the god Enki. [And] Huwaw;~ stared down [at them from..., saying to himself], "Seeing that [thcy have reached] the place of the god, have they finished [cutting dowi~... ] the god's cedars?" 2001.pdf from POLSCI 101 at University of Michigan. Self-imposed Curses Psalm 34:13 - Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit. I would fell [... ] I would... to its branches. My lord, since you have not yet seen him, He does not frighten you. Gilgamesh dives for the plant by opening a shaft through the eurth's surface to the water below. Men. For - - vour little feet let little shoes be made, For your big feet let big shoes be made, I I Iuwawa gives Gilgamesh his terrifying radiances.] As they camp each night, Enkidu makes Gilgamesh a shelter and lays out a magic circle for him to sleep in. [Enki pronounces the destiny of Gilgamesh, in the dream.] The Uruk Vase is a stone vessel from Uruk, about 3000 B.c.E., that shows a goddess receiving offerings from a man in a distinctive fringed garment. thing the earlier text did not make clear. 45 Cilgamesh spoke to him, the valiant Shamash: Tablet IX [Gilgamesh, distraught, roams the steppe. Moreover, it lies in a chest, probably in the room of some temple (see below). 'I'owards sunset they dug a well, 'I'l~ey filled [their waterskin with water]. THEMES To a Mesopotamian audience, certain themes of the poem would have been familiar from other popular literary works. There he learns that despite his heroic deeds and his mother's divinity, he cannot escape death. Mighty floodwall, protector of his troops, Furious flood-wave smashing walls of stone, 35 Wild calf of Lugalbanda, Gilgamesh is perfect in strength, Suckling of the sublime wild cow, the woman Ninsun, Towering Gilgamesh is uncannily perfect. When Inanna's brother, the god Utu, refuses to help her, Inanna turns to Gilgamesh, and he drives ilway the creatures and cuts down the tree. Would you ignore the, International Bible Lessons Commentary Hebrews 1:1-14 New American Standard Bible International Bible Lessons Sunday, December 7, 2014 L.G. The end of life is the one sure thing. cit., as well. I le was perfection in height, ltlcally handsome [... ] 1. And it is not just any knowledge. This, once again, demonstrates the mutivalence of the Gilgamesh Epic, surely the touchstone of a classlc. 3. [The great] gods will become angry with us, Enlil in Nippur, Shamash [in Larsa Establish [your reputation] for all time: "Gilgamesh, who slew Humbaba." The entire populatio~~ of the city come out to gaze at them and Gilgamesh exultantly si~~ga out to the maids of the palace: "Who is noblest of youths? The first transformation is that of Enkidu. Go, show yourself to him, If possible, cross with him, if not, then turn back. It is called The Legend of Naram-Sin, and it is attested in both an Old Babylonian and a later form. Young spirits such as Gilgamesh, fifty fell in by his side. (E.) I saw him. 38 Gilgamesh held a celebration in his palace. I tried to carry it but it was too strong for me, I tried to move it but I could not budge it. He has put on their skins, he eats their flesh. They grappled each other at the door to the wedding, They fought in the street, the public square. When Ishtar heard this, Ishtar was furious and went up to heaven, Ishtar went sobbing before Anu, her father, Before Antum, her mother, her tears flowed down: Father, Gilgamesh has said outrageous things about me, Gilgamesh's been spouting insults about me, Insults and curses against me! 83 (G.) Did you see him who deceived a god and swore falsely? ... and John Maier, published in 1984. Gilgamesh sets out into the wilderness, where he kills many wild beasts, including two lions.] cit., p Enuma Elish is the Babylonian "Epic of Creation"; in Enuma Elish, Tiamat is the mother of the younger generation of gods, Marduk is the Babylonian hero who kills Tiamat, and Damkina is the mother of the god Marduk. I have been as lee^ all these vears! Related to the question of images of women in the Gilgamesh Epic is the nature of the relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu. A short version of The Epic of Gilgamesh. 63 Not five days, not ten days, had gone by, When Akka, son of Enmebaragesi, laid siege to (the city wall) of Uruk. I picked up the tree and brought it into Uruk, I brought it into Inanna's sacred grove. PDF Ebook The Epic of Gilgamesh (Norton Critical Editions)From Foster, Benjamin R. (EDT)/ Foster, Benjamin R./ Frayne, Douglas (EDT)/ Beckman, Gar Never ever question with our deal, due to the fact that we will … Like... is the... of Gilgamesh! $12 [... ] Gilgamesh [and Enkidu] grappled with one another, and $6 The [young] man Shangashu, [a hunter], used to prepare pits Gilgamesh [... Enkidu] away. But I have seen him and he scared me witless. The name Gilgamesh itself is composed 5. Shamash considers this unfair, but Enlil overrules him. Note, as Edzard does, that Uruk is also described as the city of kezrzti sambati u h anm, -. The people of Uruk are understandably not very happy at this, and they begin to pester the gods with complaints and entreaties to do something about it. Write in the third person. (;ilgamesh gave his word by heaven, by earth, and by the netherworld. He slew wolves, defeated lions, The herdsmen, the great gods, lay down to sleep. I saw lions, I felt afraid, I looked up to pray to the moon, 10 To the moon, beacon of the gods, my prayers went forth: "[... ] keep me safe!" May she intercede on behalf of my friend, lest he lose courage." Utanapishtim leaves Gilgamesh no time to answer. (E.) He lies on the bed of the gods. The easy, natural sympathy that exists between children and animals had been Enkidu's as long as he was a child, sexually innocent. But no clear " general principles of a moral or ethical nature seem to have governed the infernal regions. It ate, preened, left droppings, did not turn back. A bracelet(?) Seal image showing two figures in a boat. 175 [Gilgamesh fulfills his promises to his mother and sister.] ("my wing! I thank Andrew George (University of London) for his extraordinary generosity in allowing me to consult his manuscript edition of the standard version of the epic. You [are just like him], You will love him like your own self. He did not fall in the place of manly battle, the netherworld seized him. 3. Enkidu went to relate his dream, Saying to his friend: Tablet VII My friend, why were the great gods in council? ( ) There can be little doubt that the inscription chiseled on stone must be identified with the lapis lazuli tablet we are now instructed to read so diligently. This climaxes in a parting speech, little of which is now preserved.] She spread terror, she spread terror, 90 The goddess Inanna spread terror over the earth! Shaggy with hair was his whole body, He was made lush with head hair, like a woman, The locks of his hair grew thick as a grainfield. Enkidu's magnanimity wins Gilgamesh's heart, and out of their battle grows a lasting friendship. 'I'ears poured down Gilgamesh's [face]: My god, the road [... ] [... ] and his ways, my god, I do not know. Prayer will lead us into dependence upon God. Sandars - honestly) ii. Enkidu at last gives up his objections.] 30 She picked up the tree and brought it into Uruk, She brought it into Inanna's sacred grove. In modern Western literature, this technique is usually used as a game or joke, but in Mesopotamian literature wordplays were used in serious and solemn literary contexts as well as for humor. Yet, the moment Gilgamesh lays eyes on him, he senses that things are not quite what he had thought, something is subtly wrong: I look at you Utanapishtim, your proportions are not different, you are just like me! When he had gone ten double hours, 110 I'l'l~e time for the sun's entry] was drawing near. Every worldview answers the questions of Creation, Fall, and Redemption. Let me introduce to you Peshtur, my younger sister, that she might become your concubine in the mountain land. and they answer: "Gilgamesh is noblest 01 youths! I, the woman who reverenced the word of the god An, was walking along, 110 I, who reverenced the word of the god Enlil, was walking along. [Gilgamesh requests permission in an oracle from the god Utu to enter mountain land.] the role of liberator ascribed to him would seem to be the reason why the god Dumuzi-Amaushumgalanna chose to model himself on Gilgamesh when he served as divine deputy with the army of Uruk in a later war of independence, the one against the hated Gutian mountaineers in about 2100 B.C. In another, Gilgamesh is the oppressor of Uruk, and Enkit111 trapped in, and must remain in, the underworld. Reseña del editor This Norton Critical Edition includes: An expanded translation from the Akkadian by Benjamin R. Foster … He freed Akka (to go) to Kish. 67 No closer than sixty times sixty paces,2 Huwawa sat in his cedar den. Epic poetry, Assyro-Babylonian-Translations into English. Even as he speaks, (iilgamesh drifts off to sleep. Theirs, then, was a reversal of normal societal relations, which potentially undermined the continuity and stability of the family. He who was born in the steppe [is mighty], strength is his! Notably successful e n priests, in whose time there had been years of plenty, continued, therefore, to be worshiped with funerary offerings after their death to insure that they would continue their blessings. lhkidu said to her, to the harlot: Come, Shamhat, escort me To the lustrous hallowed temple, abode of Anu and Ishtar, The place of Gilgamesh, who is perfect in strength, And so, like a wild bull, he lords it over the young men. I was frightened [... ] I have grown afraid of death, so I roam the steppe, My friend's case weighs heavy upon me. According to this notion, the beginning of human existence was neither a golden age nor a period of pristine simplicity. Why am I awake? With twice sixty Gilgamesh had used up the poles. [Anu speaks.] The narrative is sometimes rapid, sometimes slow. You shall be my husband and I shall be your wife. Yet your heart is drained of battle spirit, 5 You lie flat on your back, your arm [idle]. 'I'he woman did not water the tree with her hand, she watered it with her foot. May a king who shall arise after me despise you, May [... ] conceal you, May he alter my inscription and put on his own! The god Dumuzi, a fisherman(? The kings of Ur may well have originated at Uruk, but their claim of kinship with such a remote figure of the past was perhaps little more than a bid for prestige and antiquity for their family. His bullying of tlrv city's young men and deflowering of its virgins lead the gods to bring Enkith into being as a counterweight to Gilgarnesh and as a focus for his energies. 43 Hear ye, blacksmith, lapidary, metalworker, goldsmith, jeweler! I lc said to his servant Enkidu: Now, let the tools and arms of war be made ready, Let the battle club return to your side. (:ilgamesh said to her, to the tavern keeper: [ [I am Gilgamesh... 1, who killed the guardian, Who seized and killed the bull that came down from heaven, Who felled Humbaba who dwelt in the forest of cedars, Who killed lions at the mountain passes. Humbaba begged for life, saying to Gilgamesh: You were once a child, Gilgamesh, you had a mother who bore you, You are the offspring [of Ninsun the wild cow]. Gilgamesh, lord of Kulaba, How sweet it is to praise you! By the life of the mother who bore me, the goddess Ninsun, and my father, the divine pure Lugalbanda, 15 And my personal god Enki, Nudimmud! At the first glimmer of dawn, Gilgamesh arose, [He... the storehouse], He broke its seal, he surveyed the treasure, [He brought out] ~arnelian,~ [... ] alabaster, He fashioned [... ] He set out [... ] for his friend. Meaning is developed in part of a line, a whole line, in pairs of lines, or in groups of lines by use of parallelism; that is, repeated formulation of the same message such that subsequent statements may restate, expand, complete, contrast, render more specific, or carry further the first message. [Then] they [kissed(?)] If you can secure this plant, [... ] [...I 290 No sooner had Gilgamesh heard this, He opened a shaft, [flung away his tools]. The epic of Gilgamesh : a new translation, analogues, criticism. The Bull of Heaven is dead! He brought them into the mountain valley. Now, with the death of Enkidu, it touches him in all its stark reality, and Gilgamesh refuses to believe it: My friend, the swift mule, the wild ass of the mountain, the panther of the plain. Reciters of spells were learned scholars while prophets, or "ecstatics," were people who spoke in a trance without having studied their words. There is no hope, then, and terror holds Gilgamesh in its grip more desperately than ever. in the steppe(?)." They carrild daggers worked with thirk'pounds of gold, 210 Gilgamesh and Enkidu bore ten times sixty pounds each. Thus it was that thev took me far distant and had me dwell at the source of the rivers. He who goes first safeguards his companion, His vision is clear. Judgment day is a real day! Line 27 (in the Kovacs translation tradition. SCRIPTURE: Acts 25:13 26:32 Dear Parents, The Qualities of a Godly Father Mark 5: 21-24; 35-43 Today is a special day for many of the men here. Had I known, 0 door, how you would [requite me], And that this your goodness [towards me... 1, I would have raised my axe, I would have chopped you down, ir I would have floated vou as a raft to the tem~le of Shamash. "4 Before concluding, we should give brief consideration to the paradigmatic image of "mother" in the Gilgamesh Epic. When the seventh day arrived, The windstorm and deluge left off their battle, Which had struggled, like a woman in labor. How specific were the instructions God gave? Who can go into it? Who ever let loose such a scream? I le traversed the fourth mountain range, but did not come upon the cedar he desired. Come, let me lead you to ramparted Uruk, To the holy temple, abode of Anu, Let me lead you to ramparted Uruk, To hallowed Eanna, abode of Ishtar, The place of Gilgamesh, who is perfect in strength, And so, like a wild bull, he lords it over the people. The merciless agent of the plague god Nergal did not seize him, the netherworld seized him. In Mesopotamian art, an individual pardian deity, often female, is shown leading a person into the presence of a great god. THEME: Jesus is our cornerstone! Have not seven masters laid its foundations? The mother of Gilgamesh, knowing and wise, Who understands everything, said to her son, Ninsun [the wild cow], knowing and wise, Who understands everything, said to Gilgamesh: The stars of heaven around you, Like the force of heaven, what kept falling upon you, Your trying to move it but not being able to budge it, 265 Your laying it down before me, Then my making it your partner, Your falling in love with it, your caressing it like a woman, Means there will come to you a strong one, A companion who rescues a friend. Their trip is told in great detail, and we especially hear of Gilgamesh's dreams, all of which are terrifying warnings of disaster. I Ie traversed the second mountain range, but did not come upon the cedar he desired. For whose sake has my heart's blood been spent? He (Birhurture) spoke to Akka. I feel I tell the story better. Homosexuality is banned only in the Middle Assyrian laws (520) and so it may well have been a social reality. my wing!"). S9 But [when] Gilgamesh [arrived] at the Sea, he bowed down 10 the Sea, [and said to the Sea], "Long may you live, 0 Great [Sea, all11 long may] the minions who belong [to you] live!" The forest is... sixty double leagues in every direction, Who can go into it? (G.) How does he fare? This has a maternal association and perhaps is an extension of the husbandlwife motif. Do we build a house forever? Worse yet, all her previous lovers have come to a bad end. She is not only mcdat kaldma ["one who knows evetything" (Editor)] but also is wise (emqet). Where a name is set up, I would set up my name, Where a name is not set up, I would set up the names of the gods. Where preserved, the text follows the Old Babylonian narrative rather closely, but with considerable amplification: Gilgamesh the oppressor; the creation and humanization of Enkidu; his confrontation with Gilgamesh in Uruk; their friendship; Gilgamesh's proposal to fight Khuwawa, now called Khumbaba. People should know where in the mountain land you dwell. I will lay on you the greatest of all curses, Swiftly, inexorably, may my curse come upon you. [The Moon-god demands that Gilgamesh render the lions he had killed etrt lier into images for his temple. Thus begins the journey to the Cedar Forest, the confrontation, and the victory. Now you have moved him to travel A distant road. Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven The story of "Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven" finds a counterpart in the narrative of Tablet VI of the Akkadian Epic of Gilgumesh. His the epic of gilgamesh benjamin foster pdf battle-axe weighing seven talents and seven nights counted Gilgamesh as their ancestor wall. Press, Reprinted by permission of WILLIAM W. Hallo, Curator of the post was cased or enclosed so door... 0 goddess Ereshkigal, mother of Ninazu '' in a slare, he marked the place of.... My helper view that the stone Charms IIe was yearning for one to know his heart, it my... 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